Retina & Vitreous

The eye is like a camera with a lens in front and a film (retina) at the back. The retina is located approximately two centimetres behind your pupil. It is shaped like a small cup. The retina converts the ocular image into a signal that is sent to the brain. The central part of the retina, called the macula, is used for straight-ahead vision and what is in your direct line of sight.

retina-1

Stratus OCT

OCT is useful in the diagnosis of many retinal conditions, especially when the media is clear. In general, lesions in the macula are easier to image than lesions in the mid and far periphery. OCT can be particularly helpful in diagnosing:

  • Macular hole
  • Macular pucker
  • Vitreomacular traction
  • Macular edema
  • Detachments of the Neurosensory retina and retinal pigment epithelium (e.g. central serous Retinopathy or age-related Macular degeneration)

In some cases, OCT alone may yield the diagnosis (e.g. macular hole). Yet, in other disorders, especially retinal vascular disorders, it may be helpful to order additional tests

OCT is gaining increasing popularity when evaluating optic nerve disorders such as glaucoma. OCT can accurately and reproducibly evaluate the nerve fiber layer thickness.

OCT is gaining increasing popularity when evaluating optic nerve disorders such as glaucoma. OCT can accurately and reproducibly evaluate the nerve fiber layer thickness.

Diabetic Retinopathy:

retina-2Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common vascular retinal disease affecting about 40% of type 1 diabetics and 20% of type 2 diabetics. Duration of the diabetes is the most important risk factor for DR .
Treatment for DR includes Laser photocoagulation,Intra ocular injections (Avastin).

Retinal Detachment:

Retinal detachment (RD) is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue and can lead to vision loss and blindness. It is a medical emergency. RD can occur due to a hole, tear, or break in the retina or inflammation and trauma.

Macular Hole:

  • Macular Hole is a small break in the macula located in the centre of eye’s light sensitive tissue called retina. The macula provides the sharp central vision that we need for reading, driving and seeing fine details.
  • It is generally due to vitreous shrinkage and /or separation, diabetic eye disease, detached retina, high myopia, macular pucker, Best’s disease (inherited disease causing macular damage)and eye injury.
  • When a macular hole develops most people notice a sudden decrease in vision.
  • Treatment modality depends on the stage of macular hole (4 stages) like vitrectomy, ILM peeling, gas injection etc.
  • ARMD (Age related macular degeneration)
  • AMD is a disease associated with ageing that gradually destroys sharp central vision. It is of two types- wet AMD and dry AMD. Wet AMD- an early symptom is that a straight line appears wavy.

Dry AMD:

  • The most common symptom of dry AMD is slightly blurred vision. One experiences difficulty in recognizing faces and may need more light for reading and other tasks.
  • Women are at a higher risk. However other risk factors include- smoking, obesity and family history.
  • Treatment available is Laser Surgery, Photodynamic therapy and Anti VEGF therapy injection etc.

Vitrectomy services:

Vitrectomy surgery is a major medical advance which allows us to treat retinal diseases and prevent vision loss for patients who, in previous years, may have gone blind without this technique. A vitrectomy procedure usually takes about 1-2 hours but may take longer in complex cases or when combined with a scleral buckle or lensectomy.

Vitrectomy is a microsurgical procedure in which specialized instruments and techniques are used to repair retinal disorders, many of which were previously considered inoperable. The initial step in this procedure is usually the removal of the vitreous gel through very small (1.4mm) incisions in the eye wall, hence the name “vitrectomy”. The vitreous is removed with a miniature handheld cutting device and replaced with a special saline solution similar to the liquid being removed from the eye. A high intensity fiber optic light source is used to illuminate the inside of the eye while the surgeon works. The surgeon uses a specialized operating microscope and contact lenses, which allow a clear view of the vitreous cavity and retina at various magnifications.

Scleral buckling:

A classical method to treat retinal detachments where a band or buckle is implanted around the eye to support the slipping retina. Minimum duration of surgery is 40 minutes and is performed under local anesthesia.