In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients (T2DM), high blood sugars damage blood vessels in the retina which is the part of the eye that supplies optical signals to the brain to sense the visible world.
When it happens, the retina can’t perform with full efficiency which means the loss of vision. Two types of diabetic retinopathy are there; non-proliferative and proliferative.
When a patient comes to DPEH, RETINOPATHY CENTRE IN PUNE for diagnosis and treatment, the doctors perform tests to identify the type of the problem.
Here, the injured blood vessels don’t work well. Though new vessels form but they do not work properly and also prone to leaking.
Growth of the new vessels may cause retina detachment which results in vision loss. The newly formed vessels become the cause for Glaucoma in some patients.
Non-proliferative Retinopathy or NDPR is the early stage of the problem where the symptoms are either do not exist or very mild.
The retina becomes weak and tiny bulges occur in the blood vessels. They are called microaneurysms. When the fluid leaks into the retina, it causes a swelling of the macula.
Blurry vision, the inability to distinguish colors, and the loss of vision are the common symptoms. However, they don’t occur prominently. Hence, it is advisable that the patients meet ophthalmologists regularly so that problem can be resolved in the beginning.
Type 2 Diabetes increases the risk of retinopathy
The longer one has Diabetes, the higher is the risk of retinopathy. However, not every person having Type 2 Diabetes develops retinopathy.
If blood sugar levels are kept under control, then there is very slow progression of retinopathy. Even it doesn’t occur at all.
Reducing smoking (or quitting altogether) also helps lowering the risk. If the person is having high blood pressure also, then it must be kept in the healthy range.
At DPEH, the RETINOPATHY CENTRE IN PUNE Diabetic Retinopathy is done by a comprehensive examination of the eyes. The retina and macula are evaluated by:
- Patient history is studied to determine the difficulty in vision, presence of diabetes and other health conditions.
- Visual acuity measurements give information about the damage happened to central vision
- Refraction test to check the eyeglass prescription
- Evaluation of the retina by dilating pupils to check ocular structures
- Measurement of the pressure in the eyes
Supplementary teste such as Tomography or Retinal Photography give the current status of the Retina. The abnormal blood vessel growth can be measured by Fluorescein Angiography.
Diabetic Retinopathy is treated at DPEH, RETINOPATHY CENTRE IN PUNE by several ways.
Laser beam is used for stopping the leakage of fluid and blood into the retina. The beam creates small burns on the surface of the retina and seal the leaks.
In the advanced stage, a pattern of scattered laser burns is created all over the retina. Thus, the abnormal vessels shrink and disappear.
Though it causes a partial vision loss, the central vision is safeguarded by it.